India, lying in the Northern Hemisphere, is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 32,87,263 sq km. It lies between 8 degree 4' North to 37 degree 6' North latitudes, and 68 degree 7' East to 97 degree 25' East longitudes. It measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It is bounded by the Great Himalayas on the north; by the Bay of Bengal on the east; by the Arabian Sea on the west; and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the Great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the Southern peninsula. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km. Besides, India shares a common border with the neighbouring countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan on the north-west; China, Nepal and Bhutan on the north; Myanmar on the east and Bangladesh on the east of West of Bengal. Sri Lanka is also separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
India's unique and vast geography, endowed with diverse topography, has made it one of the most attractive investment destinations in the world. It is the world's largest democracy with stable policy environment, law and order as well as responsive administrative set up. It has become a global resource for various manufacturing and services industry. It is a land of abundant natural resources like coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, limestone, dolomite, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc. Its large area is covered by lush green forests producing wide variety of products of high quality like timber. It is a home to rich and varied vegetations endowed with different climatic conditions. It is rich in flora and fauna.
The diverse economy of India encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries and a multitude of services. With the largest area of arable land, India is one of the world’s biggest food producers. It is the largest producer of milk, sugarcane and tea as well as the second largest producer of rice, fruit and vegetables. India's pool of technical manpower base with an increasing disposable income and its burgeoning market have all combined to enable India emerge as a viable partner to global industry. It is the preferred hotspot for organizations keen to outsource their R & D activities, software development work, customer contact centers or IT enabled business processes. The top sectors attracting highest Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows into the country are:- electrical equipments, services sector (financial and non financial), telecommunications, transportation industry, fuels, chemicals, construction activities, drugs and pharmaceuticals, food processing, cement and gypsum products. Huge investment potential exists in the upcoming Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) sector and the real estate industry.
The Government of India is making all efforts to supplement all such advantages of the country. It has made infrastructure development as one of the key area of focus. Sound and effective connectivity via rail, road, ports and air, between the Indian States and with the rest of the world, is a necessity. Along with this, efficient power supply and excellent telecommunication network plays a very important role in the country's development. Accordingly, the Government has undertaken several policy measures and incentives to attract investors into the country and provide a good quality of life to the people.
Thus, India is one of the few markets in the world which offers high prospects for growth and earning potential in practically all areas of business, particularly in tourism, information technology (IT) and agricultural sector. There exists immense investment opportunities both at the national level and the State level.