After India's independence, several schemes and campaigns like the Community Development Programme and the Sarva Shiksha Mohim were launched by the Government, to accelerate the process of spread of literacy. An inter-ministerial project called Farmers' Training and Functional Literacy was launched, to popularise high yielding varieties of seed among farmers through Adult Education. A scheme called Functional Literacy for Adult Women (FLAW) was started in 1975-76, to boost the literacy rate among women. A two-pronged approach for the universalisation of elementary education and universal adult literacy was adopted for achieving total literacy. Over the years, National Policy on Education (External website that opens in a new window) has given an unqualified priority to programmes for eradication of illiteracy, particularly among women. The Government has decided to follow an integrated approach to literacy. This means that the Total literacy Campaign and the Post Literacy Programme operates under one literacy Project. This approach would allow the illiteracy problem to be tackled in a holistic manner.
As a result of the efforts under the literacy campaigns, the literacy rate in the country has increased from 18.33 per cent in 1951 to 65.38 per cent in 2001. Thus, in five decades, the literacy percentage had grown by 47.05 per cent or by an average of 9.41 per cent per decade. According to the 2001 Census (External website that opens in a new window), male literacy was 75.85 per cent and female literacy 54.16 per cent.
- Adult Education (External website that opens in a new window)
- National Literacy Mission (External website that opens in a new window)
Source: National Portal Content Management Team, Reviewed on: 09-07-2012