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Education Of Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes

Constitutional provisions

Article 46 of the Constitution states that, "The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation". Articles 330, 332, 335, 338 to 342 and the entire Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution deal with special provisions for implementation of the objectives set forth in Article 46. These provisions need to be fully utilised for the benefit of these weaker sections in our society.

NOTE*

  • 1-->1st Plan Expenditure
  • 2-->2nd Plan Expenditure
  • 3-->3rd Plan Expenditure
  • 4-->Plan Holiday Expenditure
  • 5-->4th Plan Expenditure
  • 7-->6th Plan Expenditure
  • 8-->7th Plan Expenditure
  • 9-->1990-92 Expenditure
  • 10-->8th Plan Expenditure
  • 11-->9th Plan Outlay. (Center Sector)
  • 12-->9th Plan Expenditure (Center Sector)
  • 13-->10th Plan Outlay. (Center Sector)
Plan Expenditure On Different Sectors Of Education (in Percentage)
Sector 1951-56 1956-61 1961-66 1966-69 1969-74 1974-79 1980-85 1985-90 1990-92 1992-97 1997-2002 1997-2002 2002-07
1* 2* 3* 4* 5* 6* 7* 8* 9* 10* 11* 12* 13*
Elementary Education 58 (870) 35 (950) 34 (2010) 24 (750) 50 (3743) 52 (5913) 32 (8414) 37 (28494) 37 (17290) 48 (103940) 66 (163696) 65.7 (145233) 65.6 (287500)
Secondary Education 5 (83) 19 (510) 18 (1030) 16 (530) @- @- 20 (5344) 24 (18315) 22 (10530) 24 (52311) 10 (26035) 10.5 (23227) 9.9 (43250)
Adult Education - - - - 2 (126) 2 (248) 6 (1533) 6 (4696) 9 (4160) 5 (11421) 3 (6304) 2.4 (5204) 2.9 (12500)
Higher Education 8 (117) 18 (480) 15 (870) 24 (770) 25 (1883) 28 (3188) 21 (5604) 16 (12011) 12 (5880) 10 (20944) 10 (25000) 10.3 (22709) 9.5 (41765)
Others 15 (227) 10 (300) 12 (730) 11 (370) 13 (936) 9 (1071) 11 (2729) 3 (1980) 2 (1180) 3 (7398) 2 (4314) 1.6 (3492) 1.4 (6235)
Technical Education 14 (215) 18 (490) 21 (1250) 25 (810) 10 (786) 9 (1015) 10 (2563) 14 (10833) 17 (8230) 10 (21987) 9 (23735) 9.5 (21095) 10.7 (47000)
Total 100 (1512) 100 (2730) 100 (5890) 100 (3230) 100 (7474) 100 (11435) 100 (26187) 100 (76329) 100 (47270) 100 (218001) 100 (249084) 100 (220960) 100 (438250)

Commitment in NCMP: The UPA government has set six basic principles for governance. One of them is "To provide for full equality of opportunity, particularly in education and employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, OBCs and religious minorities". Besides, the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the UPA Government contains following provisions aimed at the welfare and empowerment of these communities:

  1. UPA Government will take immediate steps to reverse the trend of communalisation of education that had set in the past five-years.
  2. Steps will be taken to remove the communalisation of the school syllabus that has taken place in the past five-years. A review committee of experts will be set up for this purpose.
  3. The UPA will ensure that nobody is denied professional education because he or she is poor.
  4. All reservation quotas, including those relating to promotions, will be fulfilled in a time bound manner. To codify all reservations, a Reservation Act will be enacted.
  5. The UPA Government is very sensitive to the issue of affirmative action, including reservations, in the private sector.
    Special provisions: After independence, the Government of India has taken number of steps to strengthen the educational base of the persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Pursuant to the National Policy on Education-1986 and the Programme of Action (POA)-1992, the following special provisions for SCs and STs have been incorporated in the existing schemes of the Departments of Elementary Education and Literacy and Secondary and Higher Education (External website that opens in a new window):
    1. relaxed norms for opening of primary/middle schools; a primary school within one km walking distance from habitations of population up to 200 instead of habitations of up to 300 population.
    2. Abolition of tuition fee in all States in Government Schools at least up to the upper primary level. In fact, most of the states have abolished tuition fees for SC/ST students up to the senior secondary level.
    3. Incentives like free textbooks, uniforms, stationery, schools bags, etc., for these students.
    4. The Constitutional (86th Amendment) Bill, notified on 13 December 2002, provides for free and compulsory elementary education as a Fundamental Right, for all children in the age group of 6-14 years.
    5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA):Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) (External website that opens in a new window) is a historic stride towards achieving the long cherished goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) through a time bound integrated approach, in partnership with States. SSA, which promises to change the face of elementary education sector of the country, aims to provide useful and quality elementary education to all children in the 6-14 age group by 2010.

    The main features of the programme are:
    1. Focus on girls, especially belonging to SC/ST communities and minority groups.
    2. Back to school campus for out of school girls.
    3. Free textbooks for girls.
    4. Special coaching remedial classes for girls and a congenial learning environment.
    5. Teachers' sensitisation programmes to promote equitable learning opportunities.
    6. Special focus for innovative projects related to girls education.
    7. Recruitment of 50 per cent female teachers.

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)

The thrust of the scheme is on disadvantaged groups like girls, SCs/STs, working children, urban deprived children, disabled children, etc. There are specific strategies for girls and SCs/STs; however, physical targets are fixed, in an integrated manner including coverage of these groups as well. According to a study by NIEPA, schools in DPEP districts had more than 60 per cent students belonging to SC/ST communities.

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Source: National Portal Content Management Team, Reviewed on: 19-01-2011