- Polymetallic Nodules Programme (External website that opens in a new window)
- Ocean Observation & Information Services (External website that opens in a new window)
- Marine R & T Development (External website that opens in a new window)
- Coastal Research Vessels (External website that opens in a new window)
- Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf (External website that opens in a new window)
- Comprehensive Swath Bathymetric Survey (External website that opens in a new window)
- Gas Hydrate E & T Development (External website that opens in a new window)
- Acquisition of New Research Vessel (External website that opens in a new window)
- Geophysical Study of Laxmi Basin (External website that opens in a new window)
Antarctic Expedition and Polar Science
The Antarctic Research Programme, which was initiated in 1981, has taken the shape of a major national programme that has a distinct multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary approach. So far 25 scientific expeditions have been launched on a regular basis. In addition, three expeditions to the Southern Oceans for carrying out research in the thrust areas of polar science including a Weddel Sea Expedition and Krill Expedition for assessment of Krill Resources in Antarctic waters, were also undertaken. The Indian station Maitri situated in the Central Droning Maud land of east Antarctica has provided a platform to more than 1,500 personnel drawn from about 75 national laboratories, institutes, universities, survey and service organisations to conduct experiments in all major disciplines of polar sciences. This is an outstanding example of networking national facilities and expertise. The expeditions to Antarctica are organised every year by National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (External website that opens in a new window) (NCAOR) an autonomous institution of the Ministry set up at Goa.
NCAOR is the first institute of its kind in the country completely dedicated to all the aspects of polar research. Scientific experiments being carried out at 787 Scientific and Technological Developments Antarctica are in the field of Measurements of Greenhouse gases, Tele Seismic studies, Permanent GPS Tracking Station at Maitri, Study of Crack propagation on Ice Sheet, Communication at Maitri. ORV Sagar Kanya also conducted experiments in the Southern Ocean. In the 25th Indian Antarctic Expedition which left from Cape Town in the last week of December 2005, two students and one Scientist representing a private research centre, participated for the first time. Dakshin Gangotri Glacier, which has been monitored by Indian Scientists for the last 23 years in Antarctica has been declared as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) by the governing body of the Antarctic Treaty in its XXVIII Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (External website that opens in a new window) (ATCM) held in Stockholm in June 2006. An Ice Core Laboratory to study the ice cores brought from the Antarctica, has become fully operational at NCAOR, Goa.
Ocean Observations and Information Services (OOIS)
Change is believed to be one of the potential factor for causing variation in the weather pattern resulting in droughts, floods, and extreme heat conditions in various parts of the world. The understanding on climate variability is an imperative need for India as monsoon plays an important role in the economy. Although, the oceans play an important role in the climate change, the symbiotic connection between ocean and atmosphere particularly in terms of exchange of heat and mass is not well understood. Recognising the importance of information and knowledge of the seas, an integrated programme on Ocean Observations and Information Services has been launched targeting at,
- Development of a wide range of ocean-atmospheric and coastal models
- Generation of algorithms for retrieval of satellite parameters
- Augmentation of ocean observations including in-situ and satellite measurements
- Operationalisation of ocean advisory services
The OOIS consists of four major components viz., Ocean Observing System, Ocean Information Services, Ocean Modelling and Dynamics (INDOMOD) and Satellite Coastal Oceanographic Research (External website that opens in a new window) (SATCORE).
Ocean Observing System (OOS)
The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, co-sponsored by WMO, UNEP and ICSU, is an internationally organised system for gathering, coordinating, quality control and distribution of marine and oceanographic data and derived products of common worldwide importance and utility as defined by the requirements of the broadest possible spectrum of user groups. It is recognised that one of the most important means of implementation of GOOS is through the development of regional alliances, which are able to focus on issues of common national or regional interest. Under the National Data Buoy Programme (External website that opens in a new window) (NDBP) being implemented by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (External website that opens in a new window) (NIOT), 30 moored data buoys were deployed in the Indian seas both in shallow and deep waters to cater to the needs of real time data in respect of India Meteorological Department, Coast Guard and supply of data to a variety of applications like port activities, harbour/offshore-structure development, satellite data validation, environmental monitoring, climate studies, etc.
The data buoys are now being developed indigenously to meet the requirement of additional buoys. Besides, India is coordinating the International ARGO Project of the Indian Ocean that would provide periodic profiles of temperature and salinity of the upper ocean up to a depth of 2000 metres to understand the structure and dynamics of the upper ocean that influence climate. India has assumed the leadership in the region and is responsible for deployment of ARGOs in the entire Indian Ocean. A Regional ARGO data Centre has also been established at INCOIS, Hyderabad for archival and dissemination of ARGO Data. During the year a set of six argo data products are being made available through INCOIS web site besides dissemination of processed data for the floats.
India has led the establishment of a regional alliance Indian Ocean component of Global Ocean Observing System (IOGOOS) and achieved the leadership in Indian Ocean for ocean observations. This is a major milestone towards understanding the oceanic processes of the Indian Ocean and their application for the benefit of all people in the region. IOGOOS is intended to elevate the Indian Ocean from one of the least studied to one of the most studied of the world's major oceans, with a real emphasis on the link between societal and scientific issues. India is an elected Chairman of Inter-Governmental Oceanographic Commission. India is an elected chairman of IOGOOS that has 24 members/associate members from 13 countries and the IOC. The IOGOOS Secretariat has been established at INCOIS, Hyderabad. So far India has deployed 107 ARGO floats out of planned 150 floats during Tenth Plan period.
Ocean Information Servives (OIS)
Under the programme on Ocean Information Services, near real-time data and data products such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) advisories delimiting features like upwelling zones, maps, eddies, chlorophyll, suspended sediment load, etc., consultancy services to the Central Government, States, corporate sector industries, are being made available to the user agencies under one roof. The concerted efforts of our Scientists from Ocean Development, Space and Fishery Science over the last five years have culminated in a unique service to provide reliable and timely potential fishing zone advisories using satellite data to the fishing community of the entire coastline of the country in a mission mode. Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) Advisories are disseminated thrice a week to over 225 nodes located in various states, viz. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Lakshadweep as well as Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Frequent and intense interactions between the scientists and fishing community at the fishing harbours, and use of a wide range of media such as fax, telephone, electronic display boards, satellite radio and internet have ensured that these advisories provided in the local languages become part of the value chain of the fishing community. A dynamic website has also been established at INCOIS for dissemination of a variety of application (www.incois.gov.in). In addition, INCOIS has been providing Ocean State Forecast on experimental basis to various stake holder.
Currents 3 parameters, i.e., Waves, Swell and Tidal currents are being made available through INCOIS web site. Currently PFZ information is also being disseminated through electronic display boards instituted at 20 local beaches and dissemination through a wide range of media: print, Newspaper, TV, Radio, etc.
Source: National Portal Content Management Team, Reviewed on: 09-02-2011