India has a long and distinguished tradition in science and technology, from the ancient times to great achievements during this century; the latter half prior to independence has been related largely to pure research. At the time of independence, our scientific and technological infrastructure was neither strong nor organised as compared to the developed world. This had resulted in our being technologically dependent on the skills and expertise available with other countries. In the past four decades, infrastructure and capability largely corresponds with meeting national needs, and has created minimal dependence on other countries. A range of industries from small to the most sophisticated has been established covering a wide range of utilities, services and goods. There is now a reservoir of expertise well acquainted with the most modern advances in basic and applied areas that is equipped to make choices between available technologies, to absorb readily new technologies and provide a framework for future national development.