Central Water and Power Research Station
The Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), Khadakwasla, Pune, is the centre of excellence in hydraulic research at the national level. From its inception in 1916 as an agency dealing with the twin problems of irrigation and drainage, CWPRS is an institution of international standing in hydraulic research.
The mandate of the institution encompasses undertaking specific research studies supported by necessary basic research. Comprehensive R&D support is offered to a variety of projects dealing with water resources, power and water-borne transport. Consultancy and advisory services are rendered to a variety of clients of the institution within the sphere of its activities. Disseminating expertise and research findings amongst hydraulic fraternity and promoting hydraulic research activities at other institutions by imparting training to their research manpower are also undertaken. As the regional laboratory of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) since 1971, CWPRS has contributed in many projects in the neighborhood as well as countries in the Middle East and Africa.
The major disciplines/laboratories of CWPRS are: River Engineering, Reservoir and Appurtenant Structures, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Ship Hydrodynamics, Hydraulic Machinery, Earth Sciences, Mathematical Modelling, Foundation & Structures and Instrumentation & Control Engineering. About 50 Divisions - well equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, software and other high quality infrastructure - are engaged in hydraulic research at the institution within the ambit of the disciplines/laboratories mentioned above. The institution, with an interdisciplinary approach in all its activities, represents unique services available to the country and the ESCAP region.
Central Ground Water Board
Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), a subordinate office of the Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, is the national apex agency entrusted with the responsibilities of providing scientific inputs for management, exploration, monitoring, assessment, augmentation and regulation of ground water resources of the country. Central Ground Water Board was established in 1970 by renaming the Exploratory Tubewells Organization under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It was merged with the Ground Water Wing of the Geological Survey of India during 1972.
Central Ground Water Board is a multi-disciplinary scientific organization consisting of Hydrogeologists, Geophysicists, Chemists, Hydrologists, Hydrometeorologists and Engineers and has its headquarters at BHUJAL BHAWAN, NH 4, Faridabad, Haryana. It is headed by the Chairman and has four main wings, namely
- Sustainable Management & Liaison (SML),
- Survey, Assessment & Monitoring (SAM),
- Exploratory Drilling & Materials Management (ED&MM) and
- Training and Technology Transfer (T&TT).
Each wing is headed by a Member. The administrative & financial matters of the Board are being dealt with by the Director (Administration) and Finance & Accounts Officer (FAO) respectively. The Board has 18 regional offices, each headed by a Regional Director, supported by 17 Engineering Divisions and 11 State Unit Offices for undertaking various field activities. The Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training & Research Institute (RGNGT&RI), which coordinates the capacity building activities of the Board functions from the CGWB headquarters, Faridabad at present. Various activities related to regulation of ground water development in the country are being looked after by the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), constituted under the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986.
Major activities being taken up by Central Ground Water Board include macro level ground water management studies, exploratory drilling programme, monitoring of ground water levels and water quality through a network of ground water observation wells, comprising both large diameter open wells and purpose-built bore/tube wells (piezometers), implementation of demonstrative schemes for artificial recharge and rainwater harvesting for recharge augmentation. Periodic assessment of replenishable ground water resources of the country is carried out by the Board jointly with the concerned State Government agencies. Geophysical studies, remote sensing & GIS studies and ground water modeling studies are taken up to supplement these activities. The Board also takes up special studies on various aspects of ground water sector such as ground water depletion, sea water ingress, ground water contamination, conjunctive use of surface & ground water, water balance etc. It also organizes various capacity building activities for its personnel as well as Central/State Government organizations engaged in various activities in ground water sector as well as mass awareness campaigns on the importance of water conservation and judicious ground water management. The data generated from various studies taken up by CGWB provide a scientific base for water resource planning by the stakeholders. Besides advising the States and other user agencies on planning and management of ground water resources, Central Ground Water Board also provides technical know how for scientific ground water exploration, development and management to various stakeholders.
The Board regularly publishes scientific reports based on the data generated through various investigations for dissemination to the stakeholders. These include State and District hydro-geological reports, ground water year books and Atlases, ground water user maps and guides/manuals/pamphlets on various aspects of ground water management.
Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA)
Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has been constituted under Section 3(3) of Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 vide Ministry of Environment & Forests' notification dated 14.1.1997 and reconstituted under MOEF notification dated 6.11.2000. Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) was constituted under subsection (3) of Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for the purposes of regulation and control of ground water development and management in the country.
The Authority is engaged in various activities related to regulation of ground water development to ensure its long-term sustainability. The CGWA is regulating withdrawal of ground water by industries/projects in over-exploited, semi-critical and critical blocks/talukas/mandals/districts through clearance of such proposals. The CGWA also conducts mass awareness and water management training programmes throughout the country as proactive measures to create awareness and capacity building in ground water management.
It has also initiated action to promote roof top rainwater harvesting in the country. It has also issued directions to Chief Secretaries of all States having over exploited blocks to take all necessary measures to promote/adopt artificial recharge of ground water/rain water harvesting.
Various actions initiated by the CGWA for regulation and control of ground water resources in the country include issuance of directions to Group Housing Societies, Institutes, Hotels, Industries, Farm Houses, etc. in the notified areas of Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Ghaziabad and other areas of NCT Delhi where ground water table is below 8 metres from ground surface, to adopt roof top rain water harvesting system.
Decentralization of Powers and Functions of CGWA
As part of streamlining the regulatory function of Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), District Magistrates have been appointed as authorized officers for grant of permission for extraction of ground water for drinking/domestic uses in 36 out of 43 blocks/talukas notified by CGWA in 10 States for ground water regulation. They have been advised to process the request for grant of permission for extraction of ground water for drinking/domestic purposes in notified areas as per guidelines issued by CGWA.
Source: National Portal Content Management Team, Reviewed on: 17-02-2011