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Public Services


Prior to Independence, the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was the senior most amongst the Services of the Crown in India. Besides the ICS, there was also the Indian Police Service. After Independence, it was felt that though the ICS was a legacy of the imperial period, there was need for the All India Services for maintaining the unity, integrity and stability of the nation. Accordingly, a provision was made in Article 312 of the Constitution for creation of one or more All India Services common to the Union and State. The Indian Administrative Service and The Indian Police Service are deemed to be constituted by the Parliament in terms of Article 312 of the Constitution. After the promulgation of the Constitution, a new All India Service, namely, The Indian Forest Service, was created in 1966. A common unique feature of the All India Services is that the members of these services are recruited by the Centre, but their services are placed under various State cadres, and they have the liability to serve both under the State and under the Centre. This aspect of the All India Services strengthens the unitary character of the Indian federation.

Of the three All India Services, namely, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the Indian Police Service (IPS), and the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is the cadre controlling authority for the IAS. The recruitment to all the three services is made by the UPSC. These officers are recruited and trained by the Central Government, and then allotted to different State cadres. There are now 24 State cadres including three Joint cadres, namely, (i) Assam and Meghalaya, (ii) Manipur and Tripura, and (iii) Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Mizoram and the Union Territories (AGMUT).


The Central Secretariat has three services, namely, (i) Central Secretariat Service (CSS), (ii) Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service (CSSS) and (iii) the Central Secretariat Clerical Service (CSCS). The grades of Selection Grade and Grade I of CSS and as well as the Senior Principal Private Secretary and Principal Private Secretary of CSSS are centralised. The Section Officers Grade and Assistants Grade of the CSS, Steno Grade 'D', 'C', 'A' and 'B' (merged) of CSS and LDS & UDC are decentralised. The grade-wise cadre strength of these services as on 30 June, 2007 was as under:

Grade-wise cadre strength of services
Service CSS Grade CSSS No. of Post CSCS Grade No. of Post Grade No. of Post
1 Sr. Selection Grade (Group 'A' Gazetted) 110 - - - -
2 Selection Grade (Group 'A' Gazetted) 330 Sr. PPS (Group 'A' Gazetted) 68 - -
3 Grade-I (Group 'A' Gazetted) 1405 PPS (Group 'A' Gazetted) 182 - -
4 Selection Officer (Group 'B' Gazetted) 3000 PS (A & B) (Group 'B' Gazetted) 1598 - -
5 Assistant (Group 'B' Non-Gazetted) 4905 Grade "C"/PA (Group 'B' Non-Gazetted) 2793 - -
6 - - Grade 'D' Grade 'C' (Non-Gazetted) 1958 UDC/LDC (Group 'C' Non-Gazetted) 9115
Total - 9750 6599 9115

Appointments and promotions in the Centralised Grades are made on all secretariat basis by Department of Personnel and Training (DOP&T). In respect of the decentralised grades, DOP&T monitors and assesses the overall requirements of different cadres for fixing zones of promotion against the vacancies in seniority quota and arranges centralised requirement against direct recruitment and departments examinations quota vacancies through open competitive and departmental examinations.

Pursuant to the recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs, the Government set-up a Committee on the Cadre Restructuring of CSS in February 2001. The committee submitted its Report in February 2002 and made several recommendations. The Government after careful considerations has taken several decisions in October 2003 for improving the career prospects of the CSS personnel and many of these recommendations have either been implemented, or are in various stages of implementation.

The Government had also constituted a 'Group of Officers' on Cadre Structure of the Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service (CSSS), which submitted its Report in February 2004. After considering the recommendations of the Group of Officers, the Government has taken several decisions on Cadre Structure of CSSS, for improving the career prospects of the CSSS personnel. Necessary executive orders for operationalisation of almost all the decisions have been issued.

Source: India 2010 - A Reference Annual